Both Argentina and Chile stated that research during the International Year of Geophysics would not grant participants territorial rights and that facilities built this year should be dismantled. After proposing in February 1958 to extend the Antarctic surveys for another year, the United States indicated that it would maintain its scientific basis until the completion of the studies. Improved technology and knowledge over the past 100 years have led to better access to the continent, which has led to detailed measurements and research and encouraged the gradual occupation of Antarctica by scientific stations. In the middle of the century, permanent stations were set up and planning for the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957-58, the first major multinational research program in Antarctica, began. By the middle of the century, territorial positions had also been claimed but had not been agreed upon, creating a tension that threatened future scientific cooperation. As a visitor to Antarctica, you will have the privilege of entering this world. This document will tell you a little bit about the Antarctic Treaty and why it is a single agreement for a single place. On 28 December, Member States approved the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Wildlife and the Sea (CCAMLR) for the creation of a 1.55 million km2 Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Ross Sea. Russia was the last member state to block the MPA consensus ahead of the 2016 CCAMLR meeting in Hobart, Australia. Activities in Antarctica have generally been peaceful and cooperative. But the possibility of finding exploitable economic resources was the possibility of a future rivalry for their control.
In addition, the continent, isolated and uninhabited, could at some point become a potential site for the use of nuclear weapons. The freedom and cooperation of scientific studies in Antarctica, as applied during the International Year of Geophysics, will continue, subject to the provisions of this treaty. On 4 May 1955, the United Kingdom filed two appeals against Argentina and Chile before the International Court of Justice to invalidate the invalidity of the two countries` claims to sovereignty over Antarctica and sub-Antarctic areas. On 15 July 1955, the Chilean government rejected the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice in this case and, on 1 August, the Argentine government did so, so the applications were filed on 16 March 1956.  Recognising the substantial contributions made to scientific knowledge from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica; The signing of the treaty was the first arms control agreement in the Cold War and the complaining countries managed to avoid the internationalization of Antarctic sovereignty. As an environmental regime, it is unique – an entire continent, which is essentially peaceful, will remain protected because of the commitment and cooperation of the parties. 10. The parties ensure that no contractual activity is carried out. On 28 April to 7 May, the consultative meeting of the ATLANTIC TREATY (ATCM) was held in Brasilia, Brazil. Brazil reiterated the ban on nuclear testing in Antarctica and reaffirmed its commitment to an arms-free South Atlantic region.
Emphasis was placed on strengthening coordination between states regarding their Antarctic activities, including the exchange of information.