[†] In other parts of the AEA, the procedure for authorizing nuclear exports is established in accordance with a nuclear cooperation agreement, as well as the terms of “subsequent agreements”, which could include, for example, the enrichment or reprocessing of nuclear materials. At the 29 October 1997 summit, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Planning Commission of the People`s Republic of China signed an “agreement on the intention to cooperate in the peaceful use of nuclear technology.” Subsequently, at a summit in Beijing in June 1998, DOE and the National Planning Commission of the People`s Republic of China have signed a cooperation agreement on the peaceful use of nuclear technologies, which has also brought scientists from the People`s REPUBLIC of China to national laboratories, universities and nuclear reactor facilities.98 In simple terms, the changes caused by the development and improvement of nuclear technology have created real problems of nuclear non-proliferation. In the 1970s, much was learned about the science of nuclear materials and the technical problems that a nuclear program had to solve. Although the Manhattan Project required a huge resource effort ($35.7 billion in 2019, or about one-seventh of all bombs, mines, grenades, small arms, tanks and artillery used during World War II),[10] the cost of nuclear proliferation had decreased. Glenn Seaborg, former chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, estimated in his book Stemming the Tide the cost of making one or two nuclear weapons in 1966 at no more than $100 million; [11] in 2019, or just over $806 million. [12] Seaborg also indicated that a UN panel of experts predicted that the cost of producing 100 20 kiloton plutonium bombs would be $188 million by 1977 (less than $825 million in 2019). [13] Much of this cost reduction is due to a greater supply of available nuclear materials, as well as greater sophistication of the machinery and processes required to manufacture the equipment.

In a three-part series of the Center on Global Energy Policy, three groups of authors study the future of nuclear energy in the United States and around the world. Export.gov, “Corporate Files for The Authorization of Part 810 with DOE,” December 1, 2010, www.export.gov/civilnuclear/eg_main_022102.asp. See also: National Nuclear Security Administration, “10 CFR Part 810,” nnsa.energy.gov/aboutus/ourprograms/nonproliferation-0/npac/policy/10cfr810. Until 2019, the terms of a Section 123 agreement have changed significantly. The main principles of the original section 123 show by (for example. B transfer restrictions, prohibitions on military use and the need for security and security), but significant additional requirements were added to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978, in part in response to the detonation of a nuclear aircraft in India in 1974.